Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Operation Hope unethical partnership decision with Union Bank and Nix Essay

Operation Hope unethical partnership decision with Union Bank and Nix Check Cashing - Essay Example Union Bank of California has entered in to partnership with Operation Hope which is a non-profit making organization and also Nix Check Cashing to offer financial services to low-income households. Many residents have low incomes thus consider savings-oriented services less attractive. Bryant of Operation Hope is initially reluctant to join the Union/Nix ownership model that includes financial literacy and market opportunities for Union Bank. Surprisingly, Operation Hope becomes the first non-governmental organization to sell 40 percent of its Hope Center in Willowbrook to a financial institution. This partnership links a bank which provides high interest payday loans to Operation Hope that is supposed to safeguard the welfare of the community b y providing services to low income households. The banking officers are reluctant to offer short term loans. The partnership may expose customer privacy information since Union Bank may share customer confidential information with Nix and Ope ration Hope. Nix employees are inefficient and have to give a 10 day waiting period before processing the loans. According to Union Bank, the aim of the partnership is to create 6,000 new bank customers and provide 750,000 ATM transactions (Bradley 7). Though from the Union Bank should comply with 1977 community Reinvestment Act by meeting the credit needs of communities. Nix alliance has compromised the role of Operation Hope since it cannot play a public watchdog role while it is a partner to the partnership. The construction of the partnership is aimed at ensuring profitability and success of Union Bank and Nix Check Cashing. The partnership agreement between the three institutions is unethical. The partnership is geared at increasing the profitability of Union Bank and meeting regulatory requirements like Community Reinvestment Act which requires Union Bank to offer services to communities (Bradley 7). Virtue ethics According to virtue ethics, the current state of affairs is une thical since it is not guided by ethical virtues. The virtues of Operation Hope management require them to act in a virtuous manner and act as community watchdog. Operation Hope as a non-profit institution should not enter in to a partnership which seeks to exploit the local low income households by providing expensive financial services. Operation hope should have avoided a partnership that has the potential of exposing private customer information and contravening human dignity virtues. In order to safeguard community welfare, Operation Hope should display virtues such as integrity, compassion, wisdom and courage and reject any partnership that seeks to provide expensive loans to low income households. According to Aristotle, the virtue ethics will consist of the mean between the extremes of excess and deficiency which are vices but some actions have no extremes like murder since it is virtuously wrong (Bowie 87). According to Aristotle, pleasure will impede ethical choices. For i nstance, the management of Operation Hope has acted with fear in order to uphold the partnership instead of safeguarding the community welfare. Union Bank is also unethical in its decision to partner with Nix and Operation Hope since its main objective is to adhere to requirements of Community Reinvestment Act and increase market share and profitability and not to provide the cheap loans required by the low income households. Union Bank decision is unethical since it only wants to increase market share at the expense of the society welfare. The decision of Operation Hope to join the partnership has been motivated by the pleasure of being associated with Union Bank which is a reputable Wall Street institution and Nix which is well known for cashing services. The partnership is unethical since it only promotes profit interests of Union Bank shareholders and not common interests of the low income ho

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Approaches to Economic Development

Approaches to Economic Development THE ECONOMICS OF DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES Meaning of the term ‘Economic Development’ Actually, there are broadly two main approaches to the concept of economic development : The Traditional Approach or ‘The Stages of Economic Growth’ Theories of the 1950s and the early 1960s. The New Welfare Oriented Approach or ‘The Structural-Internationalist’ Models of the late 1960s and the 1970s. 1.  The Traditional Approach : The thinking of the 1950s and early 1960s focused mainly on the concept of the stages of economic growth. Here the process of development was viewed as a series of successive stages through which all countries had to pass. The propounders of this approach advocated the necessity of the right quantity and mixture of saving, investment and foreign aid to enable the LDCs to proceed along an economic growth path. They based their conclusions on the fact that this economic path historically had been followed by most of the more developed countries. Thus, in this period development had become synonymous with rapid, aggregate economic growth. This approach defined development strictly in economic terms and it implied : A sustained annual increase in the GNP at rates varying from 5 to 7 pcpa or more; Such changes in the structure of production and employment that the share of agriculture declines in both, while the share of manufacturing and the tertiary sectors increase. The policy measures that were suggested in this period were the ones which induced industrialization at the expense of agricultural development. The objectives of poverty elimination, economic inequalities reduction and employment generation were mentioned but only as a passing reference. In most cases it was assumed that the rapid gains in overall growth in the GNP would ‘trickle-down to the masses’ in one form or the other. 2.  The New Welfare Oriented Approach: Jacob Viner was probably the first economist (1950’s) to argue that an economy could not boast of having achieved economic progress if the incidence of poverty in that economy had not diminished. But it was in the early 1970’s that economists began to realize that Jacob Viner’s stance was relevant, as nearly 40 % of the developing world’s population had not benefited at all from the rise in the GNP and from the structural changes that had taken place in their respective economies during the 1950’s and 1960’s. Hence, in the 1970s it became necessary to redefine the concept of economic development. This modern approach views underdevelopment in terms of : international and domestic power relationships; institutional and structural economic rigidities; and, the proliferation of dual economies and dual societies both within and among the nations of the world. This approach places emphasis on policies that would lead to the eradication of poverty, provide more diversified employment opportunities, and reduce income inequalities. This approach insists that these and the other egalitarian objectives have to be achieved only within the socio-economic context of the respective growing economy. Thus today, economic development is a process whereby the general economic well-being (especially of the masses) of an economy is affected for the better. Meier defines economic development very concisely as: ‘Development is the process whereby the real per capita income of a country increases over a long period of time subject to the stipulation that the number below an absolute poverty line does not increase and that the distribution of income does not become more unequal’. This definition thus highlights the following aspects of the term economic development : 1.  Development is a PROCESS : Today, development implies the operation of certain socio-economic forces in an interconnected and causal fashion. This interpretation is more meaningful than merely to identify development with a set of conditions or a catalogue of characteristics. 2.  Development is a RISE IN THE REAL PER CAPITA INCOME : Since today the development of a poor country arises from a desire to remove its mass poverty, the primary goal should be a rise in the real PCI rather than simply an increase in the economy’s real national income, uncorrected for changes in the population. Simply increasing the real national income does not guarantee that there would be an improvement in the general living standards of the masses. If the population growth rate surpasses the growth of national output or even runs parallel with it, the result would be a falling or at best a constant PCI and as this would not be beneficial to the masses, it cannot be considered as development. 3.  Development can take place only over a LONG PERIOD OF TIME : This time period is significant from the stand-point of development being a sustained increase in the real income and not simply as a short-period temporary rise, such as occurs during the upswing of the business cycle. The underlying continuous upward trend in the growth of the real PCI over at least two or three decades is a strong indication that the process of development is on the right track. 4.  Development must lead to a DECREASE IN SIZE OF THE ABSOLUTELY POOR : Given the new orientation of the development thought, it is necessary that the quality of life of the masses must improve in fact improve to the extent of actually showing a fall in the amount of people living below the poverty line. This would automatically require, as suggested in the definition, a reduction in the economic inequalities in the economy. To achieve this goal, it is necessary that the policies implemented should actually divert economic power towards the economically vulnerable groups in the economy. The policies should aim at raising the real PCI, causing a diminution in economic inequality (ie., an alleviation if not an eradication of poverty), ensuring a minimum level of consumption, guaranteeing a certain socially relevant composition of the national income, reducing unemployment to a tolerable low level and removing regional development disparities. The framework of development as given by Charles P. Kindleberger and Bruce Herrick reiterates the improvement-of-the-masses emphasis of Meier’s definition. Kindleberger and Herrick maintain that economic development is generally taken to include : Improvement in material welfare, especially for persons with the lowest incomes, the eradication of mass poverty along with its correlates of illiteracy, disease, and early death; Changes in the composition of inputs and outputs that generally include shifts in the underlying structure of production away from agricultural and towards industrial activities; Organizing the economy in such a way that productive employment is general among the working age population and that employment is not a privilege of only a minority; and, Increasing the degree of participation of the masses in making decisions about the directions, economic and otherwise, in which the economy should move to improve their own welfare. The Economic Growth V/s Economic Development dEBATE The stress on the improvement in the quality of life of the masses has made it imperative to distinguish between the growth-oriented approach of the 1950s 1960s and the modern development-oriented approach of the late 1960s 1970s ie., the distinctions between Economic Growth and Economic Development must be highlighted. 1.  Definitional differences : Economic growth is a pure economic process whereby there is an increase in the economy’s GNP due to the increase in the productive capacity of the economy. Economic development, on the other hand, is a multi-dimensional process involving major changes in the social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions, as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty. 2.  Differences in the objectives : Economic growth aims at: Increasing the size of the GNP, without actually considering the social relevance of the composition of the national income. Removing all the obstacles that could come in the way of increasing the economy’s productive capacity, eg., removing the market imperfections that exist in the economy. Supplying the ‘missing components’ like capital, foreign exchange, technology, skills and management, which are needed for improving the economy’s productive capacity. Hoping that the benefits of the increased capacity of the economy would some how reach the masses. Economic development, on the other hand, aims at : Increasing the availability and widening the distribution of basic life-sustaining goods such as food, shelter, health and protection. Raising the level of living including, in addition to higher incomes, the provision of more jobs, better education and greater attention to cultural and humanistic values, all of which serve not only to enhance material well-being but also to generate greater individual and national self-esteem. Expanding the range of economic and social choice to individuals and nations by freeing them from servitude and dependence, not only in relation to other people and nations, but also from the forces of ignorance and human misery. Thus, we see that the goals of economic growth are rather narrow in scope, while those of economic development are more broad-based in nature and in scope. 3.  Differences in the overall approach : a.  Quantitative versus Qualitative Approaches : According to Kindleberger, economic growth means more output, while economic development implies not only more output but also changes in the technical and institutional arrangements by which it is produced and distributed. Growth involves more output derived from greater amounts of inputs and with greater efficiency; but, development implies changes in the composition of the output and in the allocation of the inputs to the different sectors. Thus, growth is related to a quantitative sustained increase in the PCI accompanied by the expansion in its labour force, consumption, capital and volume of trade, while economic development is related to qualitative changes in economic wants, goods, incentives and institutions. b.  Revolutionary Speed versus Evolutionary Speed Approaches : Economic growth implies a certain degree of rapidity in the change process. Changes are introduced at a brisk rate and without a sufficient preparation of the socio-eco-politico foundations of the economy. Projects are literally imposed on the economy to create a global impression of progress. The masses are either not taken into confidence or are not considered vis-à  -vis the new projects. The rapid changes caused by the ‘Revolutionary Approach’ of economic growth ensure the failure of the system within a short time. Economic Development, on the other hand, adopts a more ‘Evolutionary Approach’ ie., it first ensures that the socio-eco-politico foundations are readied for the change. Hence, when the change actually takes place, it is readily and popularly accepted and supported. Thus, development involves creating a sense of awareness and a feeling of participation among the masses in the economy. This makes the development process painstakingly slow, long and drawn-out but it is this gradualness in approach that actually strengthens the economy in the long run. c.  Only Immediate Gains versus Also Futuristic Gains Approaches : The gains that accrue from economic development are far more sustaining than those made from growth, simply because of the differences in the way the future of the to-be-introduced projects are anticipated, analyzed and appreciated. Economic growth means increasing the economic activities, irrespective of whether the economy can continue supporting the newly introduced economic activity in the long run or not. For instance, along the lines of economic growth, an LDC would increase its current steel producing capacity, but it would not be able to keep up this new capacity for more than a few years. Hence, within a few years, the increased capacity would lay wasting leading to a wastage of scarce resources. Economic development, on the other hand, would consider the future sustaining capacity of the economy before actually increasing the steel capacity. If and only if the economy can continue supporting this higher rate in the future, the capacity would actually increase. Thus, economi c development guarantees that the scarce resources are currently used fruitfully and appropriately. d.  Only Economic versus Also Environmental concern Approaches : Economic growth, due to its rapid approach, more often than not, causes harm to the environment natural and/or social. Projects are undertaken without considering the cascading effects that could follow in the form of natural environment degradation, pollution, overcrowding, increase in crime rate, bottlenecks in infrastructural facilities, etc. For instance, an economy, for growth’s sake, could undertake an irrigational project without either making a thorough study of or without caring about its ramifications on the natural and social environment. Economic development, on the other hand, insists on the conservation and the protection of the natural and social environment. If a certain project could cause any sort of significant damage to the environment, that project would be either abandoned or altered. If the above mentioned irrigational project was approached from the development point of view, its site would be either changed, or its dimensions altered to prevent natural environmental harm; and if there is any sort of social environmental damage, like displacement of the inhabitants, then, rehabilitation projects would be undertaken, in consultation with the affected people. e.  The Trickle-Down versus The Direct-Attack Approaches : Economic growths, primary goal is to increase the productive capacity of the economy massively, irrespective of whether or not the poorer sections would benefit from this higher capacity. In fact, growth works on the assumption that the benefits that accrue from the increase in capacity would some how or the other trickle-down to the masses. Thus, growth makes no deliberate attempt ensure that the benefits do reach the poorer sections of the economy. The objectives of poverty eradication, economic inequalities reduction and employment generation are mentioned but only as a passing reference, as secondary gains that may or may not occur. Growth has a sort of an in-built tendency to bypass those very people in the economy who deserve to be supported the most by it. Economic development, on the other hand, by directly attacking economic misery, ensures that the benefits of the increase in the productive capacity actually reach the masses. The policies aim at diverting economic power towards the economically weaker sections of the economy. The policies directly aim at raising the real PCI, causing a diminution in economic inequality, ensuring a minimum level of consumption, guaranteeing a certain socially relevant composition of the national income, reducing unemployment to a tolerable low level and removing regional development disparities. 4.  Interrelationship between Economic Growth Economic Development : Although economic growth and economic development are indeed very different in their approaches, there exists an inter-relationship between them. It is difficult to conceive of development without growth. In low income countries, for instance, a substantial increase in the GNP is needed before they can hope to overcome their problems of poverty, unemployment and occupational distribution. However, it is possible to have growth without development, as growth is not concerned with the social aspects of an economy. In short, since development is a broader concept it encompasses growth and therefore can be said to be directly related to growth. Thus, development is growth with a human face. References: Todaro, M.Economic Development in the Third World. Chs 1 and 3 Meier, G.Leading issues in Economic Development. Ch 1 (1-A) Misra PuriEconomics of Growth and Development (4th Ed) Ch 1 Jhingan, M. L.The Economics of Development and Planning. (28th Ed) Ch 1 Mukherji, SampatModern Economic Theory Ch 50

Monday, January 20, 2020

Great Expectations: Use of Irony :: free essay writer

Great Expectations: Use of Irony Many professors, analysts, and common readers believe that Great Expectations was possibly the best work of Charles Dickens. Perhaps it was because of the diverse themes displayed by Dickens, which modulate as the story progresses. A clear example of the measures taken by the author to create diversity, is the application of irony. Dickens uses Rony to create suspense and conflict in plot events related to Estella, Miss Havisham, the convict, Joe, and Mrs. Joe. The relationship between Pip and Estella is very complex and ironic. It keeps the reader entertained, with the humor of sophisticated children. A major irony, of situation, occurs when Estella kisses Pip after insulting and degrading him. The reader becomes confused with Estella's actions and feels sympathy for Pip. The confusion causes conflict, which keeps the reader on the edge of their seat. On page 104 Estella says, "Come here! You may kiss me, if you like." This is something unexpected, which livens up the story. Dickens portrays Miss Havisham in a very unique way. There is a dramatic irony between Miss Havisham and Pip. It is ironic how she wanted to watch him become miserable, just because he is of the male gender, and ironically she grew to like him. She even paid for part of Pip's expenses for the partnership. Yet what is more ironic is that Miss Havisham does not praise herself for the good deed. In the beginning of the novel, Miss Havisham displayed a harsh, cold attitude toward Pip. This is displayed in her deceptive act on page 69, where she says, "Well, you can break his heart?" As the novel ends Miss Havisham's attitude completely changes. She realizes the pain she has caused Pip and apologizes to him. Because of her positive change, she becomes more likeable to the audience. A third person to have an odd effect on Pip is the convict. One of the greatest examples of irony is brought out, in the sudden confrontation between Pip and the convict. On page 12, the convict speaks to Pip, " Get me a file." Pip listens to the convict and brings him food and a file. It is ironic how a simple task such as this, changed Pip's life forever. Pip obeyed the man, and later in life the man repaid him. It is ironic how the convict takes from Pip, then later gives back. Great Expectations: Use of Irony :: free essay writer Great Expectations: Use of Irony Many professors, analysts, and common readers believe that Great Expectations was possibly the best work of Charles Dickens. Perhaps it was because of the diverse themes displayed by Dickens, which modulate as the story progresses. A clear example of the measures taken by the author to create diversity, is the application of irony. Dickens uses Rony to create suspense and conflict in plot events related to Estella, Miss Havisham, the convict, Joe, and Mrs. Joe. The relationship between Pip and Estella is very complex and ironic. It keeps the reader entertained, with the humor of sophisticated children. A major irony, of situation, occurs when Estella kisses Pip after insulting and degrading him. The reader becomes confused with Estella's actions and feels sympathy for Pip. The confusion causes conflict, which keeps the reader on the edge of their seat. On page 104 Estella says, "Come here! You may kiss me, if you like." This is something unexpected, which livens up the story. Dickens portrays Miss Havisham in a very unique way. There is a dramatic irony between Miss Havisham and Pip. It is ironic how she wanted to watch him become miserable, just because he is of the male gender, and ironically she grew to like him. She even paid for part of Pip's expenses for the partnership. Yet what is more ironic is that Miss Havisham does not praise herself for the good deed. In the beginning of the novel, Miss Havisham displayed a harsh, cold attitude toward Pip. This is displayed in her deceptive act on page 69, where she says, "Well, you can break his heart?" As the novel ends Miss Havisham's attitude completely changes. She realizes the pain she has caused Pip and apologizes to him. Because of her positive change, she becomes more likeable to the audience. A third person to have an odd effect on Pip is the convict. One of the greatest examples of irony is brought out, in the sudden confrontation between Pip and the convict. On page 12, the convict speaks to Pip, " Get me a file." Pip listens to the convict and brings him food and a file. It is ironic how a simple task such as this, changed Pip's life forever. Pip obeyed the man, and later in life the man repaid him. It is ironic how the convict takes from Pip, then later gives back.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Europe On The Eve Of World War I Essay

World War I, or The Great War, actually started on June 28, 1914 upon the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, by a Serbian national. This led to a series of battles upon the eventual formation of the Central Powers made up of Germany, Austro-Hungary, the Turkish Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, and they fought against the Entente Powers made up of Russia, France and Great Britain. However, since â€Å"Europe stumbled unexpectedly into war in the summer of 1914,†1 the question remains as to which of the major countries that fought the First World War were most prepared in terms of economy and military strength and which were not. Britain Among the Entente Powers during WWI, Britain was actually considered â€Å"the greatest colonial power [and] maintained the greatest navy. †2 However, it is also a fact that during that time Britain â€Å"was being increasingly challenged by France and Russia†3 and Germany. The British in fact â€Å"increased their warship production with the  William R. Griffiths and Thomas E. Griess, The Great War (2003): 1. 2. Ian Westwell, World War I Day by Day (1999): 7 3. Ibid. 4. Spencer Tucker, The Great War 1914-18 (1998): 3 intention of war†5 and in fact had a series of wars with Africa in 1899. Britain, along with the other great European powers, â€Å"embarked on an arms race that ran in tandem with the scramble for colonies,†6 which simply means that the reason they improved their armies and navies was because â€Å"they needed to protect far-flung colonies and maintain a balance of military power with their neighbors in Europe. †7 During the early 20th century, Britain launched â€Å"HMS Dreadnought, a Battleship incorporating several new technologies that was far superior to any vessel afloat in 1906†8 This was somehow the reason why other European powers especially Germany began improving and â€Å"building their own dreadnought-type battleships†9 because they saw â€Å"a sudden vulnerability of their costly fleets. †10 However, one rumor was that â€Å"the British recognized the naval competition from Germany as a threat to their existence,†11 though â€Å"the naval arms race between these two powers would continue until the eve of the war. 5. Westwell, 7. 6. Ibid, 8. 7. Ibid. 8. Ibid. 9. Ibid, 9. 10. Ibid. 11. Griffiths and Greis, 5. 12. Ibid. It is said that naval arms race between these two powers would continue until the eve of the war. †13 Nevertheless, â€Å"by 1914, Germany had a navy second only to England’s. †14 Economically, it is said that Britain, along with France and Germany, was ready for the Great War. The most important influence upon British and the rest of the European military during those times was in fact â€Å"the largess bestowed upon European societies by the Industrial Revolution. †15 It is said that â€Å"a wealth of goods, rising productivity, and material well-being†16 were brought about by the factories of the latter half of the 19th century. This period of economic growth all over Europe led to â€Å"the greater availability of education for the lower classes† and that â€Å"better and more widespread educational opportunities enabled citizens to comprehend more readily the†¦military affairs of the state. †17 This perhaps encouraged nationalism among the people of the various European nations. Consequently such feelings may have similarly encouraged rivalries with other nations. Thus, the soil for the war was fertile and all it needed was the seed – which was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. 13. Griffiths and Greis, 5. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid, 6 16. Ibid. 17. Ibid. France As early as 1870, â€Å"France had considered itself – and had been considered by others – the leading military power of Europe. †18 It was defeated by Germany during the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 but it was not stated whether this war was really a showcase of the French military but rather it â€Å"meant a lasting antagonism†19 with Germany. Nevertheless, despite being a military power in the late 9th century, France had its â€Å"entire†¦province of Alsace [seized as well as] part of a second province, Lorraine. †20 Germany Since the empire became united in 1871, â€Å"imperial Germany had rapidly emerged as the dominant industrial and military power†21 in Europe and such â€Å"created a potentially explosive situation. It was also believed that â€Å"by the start of the twentieth century, Germany was creating a first-class navy,† which was in fact considered â€Å"the most obvious and dramatic illustration of Germany’s surging power in many spheres. †23 Such was the 18. Neil M. Heyman, World War I (1997): 5. 19. Ibid. 20. Ibid. 21. Ibid. 22. Ibid. 23. Ibid. greatness of the military strength of Germany in the early 20th century. In addition to that, Germany also had an economy that was emerging as one of the strongest in the whole of Europe. Since 1870, Germany’s â€Å"industry had grown so rapidly that this part of Europe, which had supplied immigrants to the Western Hemisphere for more than a century, now imported labor from Poland. †24 Twentieth century Germany was actually home to â€Å"higher education and scientific research [and] a system of social insurance for its working class† and in fact, the country â€Å"could pride itself on being a world leader. † Germany also prided itself with a great leader during that time. The ruler of Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm II, was often considered as â€Å"the embodiment and often the director of [Germany’s] restless energies. †25 By the late 19th century, Kaiser Wilhelm II earned the respect and friendship of a few ambitious military leaders who were against Britain and who would want to challenge it to war. One of these military leaders was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, the Secretary of State of the Imperial Naval Office of Germany at that time. Moreover, Kaiser Wilhelm II also had his own imperialist ambitions as well for he considered the German navy â€Å"a tool of external power†26 and even declared it to Prime Minister Arthur Balfour of Britain in 1902, many years before the outbreak of WWI. In fact â€Å"the Kaiser sought to play   24. Heyman, 5. 25. Ibid, 6. 26. Ibid. politics, and repeatedly declared that he was determined to make Germany not just dominant in European affairs but in the world† and had a â€Å"desire for a German-dominated central Europe. †27 Such was the measure of Wilhelm II’s ambition and resolve. The Kaiser’s biographer even wrote, â€Å"Only with a fleet could Germany be able to elicit from the British the esteem Wilhelm II believed to be his due. †28 Germany was indeed already a strong power in the early 20th century many years before the outbreak of the Great War. It is said that â€Å"the security of Austria-Hungary, the weaker of the Central Powers, was [even] guaranteed by Kaiser Wilhelm II [since] late 1912. †29 Such was the strength of Germany at that time that they could even guarantee the protection of the territory of another country in addition to their own. Conclusion On the eve of World War I, Britain, France and Germany were all ready for the war that was to ensue. However, among the three, Germany seemed to be the most prepared especially when it came to the military, specifically the development and advancement of its naval warships as well as powerful leadership in the person of Kaiser Wilhelm II. On the other hand, France, although a leading military power of Europe at that time, was in fact torn apart by Germany during the 1871 Franco-Prussian War, hence was not impressively strong compared to Britain and Germany. 27. Tucker, 3. 28. Heyman, 6. 29. Westwell, 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY Griffiths, Williams R. and Griess, Thomas E. The Great War. New York: Square One Publishers, Inc. , 2003. Heyman, Neil M. World War I. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. , 1997. Tucker, Spencer. The Great War 1914-18. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1998. Westwell, Ian. World War I Day by Day. New York: The Brown Reference Group, Plc. , 1999.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Rodney King - 955 Words

Turnitin gave a grade of 4% similarity. | Unethical Behavior of Police Brutality | Ethical Behavior In Criminal Justice | | Yasmen Sarter | 11/18/2012 | This paper is to the best of my ability. | From the perspective of law, excessive physical force most clearly constitutes police brutality, a term often applied loosely to various forms of police misconduct (Holmes, 2000). Over the years, police brutality continues to be an issue of concern all across the world and the need for reducing law enforcement from engaging in this unethical behavior is imperative. Although, police organizations throughout the United States have responded by tightening their physical force, policies and reminding their officers to use†¦show more content†¦Professionally, the rookie officer potentially could damage his career before it even began. He could also be bullied or harassed for violating the â€Å"code of silence† among officers. Not to mention, an accusation of any wrong doing will forever remain on his record and he could possibly be assigned to desk duties. All officers involved in the beating and tasing of the suspect abused their power, but even more so the Sergeant whose job is to display exemplary ethical behavior. His job is to teach good ethics by his actions and discourage moral impurity and police misconduct. Police brutality is a reoccurring issue in the United States that we face in society. There is not enough training offered for police officers to gain throughout their career. The implementations of refresher courses are essential in helping to reduce unethical behavior/police misconduct. The training should consist of posing different scenarios involving police misconduct and how they should respond when faced with an ethical dilemma. It is therefore recommended that law enforcement be required to obtain ethical training over the course of their career. More emphasis needs to be placed on the relevance of ethical behavior especially when it involves law enforcement. Works Cited Feagin, J., Herman, V., amp; Batur, P. (2000). White Racism. Los Angeles. Holmes, M. (2000). Minority threat and police brutality: Determinants of civil rights criminalShow MoreRelatedPolice Brutality And The Law Enforcement846 Words   |  4 Pagesdemonstrating the brutality of law enforcement has been becoming more frequent over the past couple of years. When you hear about these cases of police brutality, how often is it that law enforcement officials are punished for the crime they have perpetrated? Most of the time the law enforcement officials, who are very well in the wrong do not get any kind of punishment whatsoever for the crimes that they have committed and it all comes back to the power that they have. Police brutality cases have beenRead MoreEssay about Unethical Police Operations959 Words   |  4 PagesThe actions of police are watched very closely. 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Many police departments offer training in ethics during the time in which a cadet is in the police academy and after officers are put on the streets, which is called in-service training. It is the hope t hat while this training is available to officersRead MorePolice Misconduct And The Criminal Justice System1039 Words   |  5 PagesPolice unethical operations, imposes high cost on police, the criminal justice system, and society. Criminal activity by a police officer undermines the basic integrity of law enforcement and the grounds which the laws were based on. Regardless if an officer takes a small bribe or is involve in a drug trade, the corruption forever change the relationship between communities and the face of justice. . . Unethical Police Operation When a Police Officer abuses his authority, it is called policeRead MoreEthics and Law Enforcement: Ethical Conduct for Police Officers676 Words   |  3 PagesEthical Conduct for Police Officers Ethics among police officers is critical to maintaining law and order in a democratic society. Whether responding, investigating, interrogating, interviewing, or handling evidence, police interface directly with citizens and possess a great deal of power (Borello, 2012). When they are corrupt or otherwise unethical, it compromises balance and safety in a community and in society as a whole. Ethical behavior helps instill public trust in the systems and policiesRead MoreThe Problem Of Making Unethical Choices938 Words   |  4 Pages†¢ The problem of making unethical choices due to ‘systematic corruption’ and ‘administrative evil’ (Svara, 2015,p.110) o Systematic corruption occurs when the military system of following orders, apply directly in the public service, forces participants to follow instructions and punished those who resist, even though the instructions is unethical and it means the suffering of some citizens. o Government claimed to have been abide by and maintain law and order, but contradicted by their practicesRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Police Officer1827 Words   |  8 Pagescommunity and those who have sworn to protect its citizens. The process of improving police conduct and addressing educational needs has been slow with recommendations as far back as the early 1900s. Commissions, such as Wickersham and the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice suggested a link between education and ethical behavior. Recommendations were made to increase the learning of police officers through training and formal education. The common belief was educationRead MoreRacial Profiling And The Criminal Justice System1204 Words   |  5 Pagesbecause it relies on stereotypes and encourages discrimination. Examining cases that have occurred in the past and most recently help us fully understand this issue. Many studies and reports of racial profiling involve excessive use of force, police brutality, imposition of death penalty, traffic stops, stop and frisk issues, airport screening and immigration. All these issues are fully expressed in this paper. This paper offers facts and statistics as evidence of the existence of racial profiling

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Cultural Critique Of Japanese Cafes - 1400 Words

Cultural Critique of Japanese Cafà ©s In Japan, there are many aspects that make it attractive to the human eye. One of those things is the abundant ‘kawaii’ attributes. ‘Kawaii’ is a Japanese word used to reference things that are cute or adorable. A couple of examples would be kitty keychains, ice cream earrings, and pink owl sharpeners. However, they don’t always have to be something small. Another common attraction in Japan that’s considered ‘kawaii’ are the various themed cafà ©s, or restaurants. The cafà ©s in Japan are wildly different and diverse from the typical American cafà ©s and they usually include a signature theme, such as cats, ninjas, and maids. The most common cafà © in Japan is the typical maid cafà ©. This is where the waitresses usually dress up in a maid costume and talk to the customers as if they were their ‘master’. Patrick Galbraith wrote an article that goes in depth about maid cafà ©s. In his article he mentions, â€Å"Maid cafà ©s first appeared in the late 1990s in Akihabara, Japan, an area where dating simulation games were sold and players gathered. Maid cafà ©s extended relations with fictional characters from media to physical reality, allowing players to interact with fictional characters in human form, while at the same time interacting with humans who perform characters† (GalBraith). So people would go to these cafà ©s as a way to bring their dating simulation games to life. It could also be a great way for people who are lonely, to find a connection withShow MoreRelatedStarbucks: Going Global Fast925 Words   |  4 Pagescoffee as well. *As Starbucks is going abroad to expand its business with local partners of that region there risk of SRC and ethnocentrism. It can be over come through proper adjustment keeping SRC and ethnocentrism away in decision making. 3. Critique Starbucks’ overall corporate strategy. Starbucks are incurring losses for mismatch between their corporate strategies and the customer’s expectations. *When Starbucks is blanketing some specific cities for dominance, still eight states in theRead MoreStarbucks-Going Global Fast1353 Words   |  6 Pages †¢ As Starbucks is going abroad to expand it business with local partners of that region there risk of SRC and ethnocentrism. It can be over come through proper adjustment keeping SRC and ethnocentrism away in decision making. Question No.3. Critique Starbucks overall corporate strategy. Answer: Starbucks are incurring losses for mismatch between their corporate strategies and the customer’s expectations. Those are described below: †¢ When Starbucks is blanketing some specific citiesRead MoreArt And Culture, 1920-1945, An Exhibition Curated By Dr. Kendall Brown1583 Words   |  7 PagesBetween February 13 and July18, 2015 the Brigham Young University Museum of Art is exhibiting Deco Japan: Shaping Art and Culture, 1920-1945, an exhibition curated by Dr. Kendall Brown. The exhibit was collected in an attempt to detail the cultural transformation that took place in Japan from the Roaring Twenties all the way through the end of World War II. The exhibit displays the tension between the deep national culture and the up and coming cosmopolitan lifestyle. Dr. Brown gathered art of allRead MoreCoffee And Its Effects On The World s Most Widely Consumed Beverages And One Of The Globe2735 Words   |  11 Pagescontinued to grow by almost 30% over the past four years (U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service [USDA - FAS], 2013: 1). Metaphorically speaking, the coffee industry practically exp loded over the past decade with almost a 900% rise in cafes and other similar shops between the periods 2006 – 2011. As of 2012 there were over 12,000 specialty coffee shops within the country as opposed to 7500 in 2008 (Asia Today: 5/5/2013). Amongst these the eleven biggest chains run approximately 1,382Read MoreThe kitchen is arguably the last battle – ground for reproduction of gender relations in the western world. Discuss.2158 Words   |  9 Pagesstill exists in the veiled form in the modern, urban culture and it is recorded in the social consciousness by new media and state authorities who referred to social, cultural and structural tradition. Weedon (1997) also describes gender as a socially produced and historically changing aspect of identity that is shaped by cultural and institutional discourse within a society. She writes: â€Å"As children we learn what girls and boys should be and later, what women and men should be† from social institutionsRead MoreStarbucks Going Global Fast3760 Words   |  16 Pagessuburbs and shopping malls are full to the brim. In coffee-crazed Seattle, there is a Starbucks outlet for every 9400 people, and the company considers that the upper limit of coffee-shop saturation. In Manhattan’s 24 square miles, Starbucks has 124 cafes, with four more on the way this year. That’s one for every 12000 people – meaning that there could be room for even more stores. Given such concentration, it is likely to take annual same-store sales increases of 10 per cent or more if the companyRead MoreMarketing Case Study9790 Words   |  40 Pagesyou think government officials in developing countries such as Russia, China, and India welcome McDonald’s? Do consumers in these countries welcome McDonald’s? Why or why not? Despite concerns by governments and citizens in some countries about â€Å"cultural imperialism,† McDonald’s and other franchises with well-known brand names are generally welcome. Such businesses provide both much-needed jobs and employee training. McDonald’s does a good job of earning the support of local authorities and theRead MoreTEFL Assignment Answers23344 Words   |  94 Pagesdiscussion from those that view his pieces. I would spend half of my brief talk-time on introducing the artist and his art—and then I would provide students with the opportunity to write a paragraph critique of the art. After the writing time, I would provide time for verbal discussion of their critiques. I would determine how much time is spent on writing vs. discussion based on the needs of the particular classroom. Note: This lesson can be altered by substituting the art for music, poetry, proseRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagescapitalist, colonial, and fascist. Particularly revealing are Spodek’s discussions of the influence of prominent urban planners and architects— including Le Corbusier and the Chicago School—urban preservation and the city as the locus of global cultural development, and the ways in which slums and shanty towns have morphed into long-term homes and viable communities for perhaps a majority of urban dwellers worldwide in the last half of the twentieth century. Broadly conceived and remarkably comprehensiveRead MoreStarbucks Business Plan31663 Words   |  127 Pages40 4.3.2.2.1 Defining market segmentation 40 4.3.2.2.2 Reasons for segmenting the market 41 4.3.2.2.3 How to segment the Danish coffee shop chain industry market 41 4.3.2.3 Consumer markets 42 4.3.2.3.1 Consumer behavior 43 4.3.2.3.1.1 Cultural factors 43 4.3.2.3.1.2 Social factors 44 4.3.2.3.1.3 Personal factor 44 4.3.2.3.2 The Five-Stages Model 45 4.3.2.3.2.1 Problem recognition 46 4.3.2.3.2.2 Information search 46 4.3.2.3.2.3 Evaluation of alternatives 47 4.3.2.3.2

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

A Community Assessment Of 70806 Baton Rouge - 3485 Words

A Community Assessment of 70806 Baton Rouge. The 70806 of Baton Rouge, LA consists of a diverse community of college students, low income and middle class income areas. Driving through the community reveals income inequality, poverty and opulence, homelessness and extravagant houses, healthy youth and elderly sick individuals. It was a challenge to assess the 70806 due to the great diversity but a much greater challenge to come up with viable. Description of the Community The community of 70806 has land area of approximately 8.9 square miles. It is bordered by 70806 Choctaw road to the North, old Hammond highway to the 70806, Park Boulevard to the East, and airline highway to the West (Appendix A). Baton Rouge was founded by the†¦show more content†¦Other occupations include healthcare, construction, and transportation. The average household income is $37,058, which is below the national average. This is in relation to the 20.9 % of families in this community that are below the poverty level (70806 Detailed Profile, n.d.). Housing There is also a huge range among the housing units in the 70806. There is approximately 14,333 housing units that range from $10,000 to $1,000,000 (70806 Detailed Profile, n.d.). The majority of the homes in this area are detached (50.2% ) and 0.7 % are mobile homes, the rest are apartment building with the majority housing 10 or more apartments In the year 2000, the average price of a home for sale in this area was $73,000 (70806 Detailed Profile, n.d.). The most frequent home values lie in the ranges of $40,000- $49,000 and $60,000- $69,000. The average cost of rent in this community lies between $300 and $500 per month. The average home in this community consists of families made up by two or more people with the average size of the family being three people. Over 1,426 homes in this community have families with children under the age of 18 living in them. Over 6,000 homes consist of non-family occupants (70806 Demographic, n.d.). The average house consists of three or less bedrooms. 2,256 households are single parent households headed by a female. More than 1,600 households in this zip code are group occupied homes. Safety/Transportation Scores on national tests show